This article is about an economic, social, or socioeconomic grouping. For the author, see Geoffrey Household. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced ... This article is about an economic, social, or socioeconomic grouping. For the author, see Geoffrey Household. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (October 2008) A household consists of one or more people who live in the same dwelling and also share at meals or living accommodation, and may consist of a single family or some other grouping of people. A single dwelling will be considered to contain multiple households if meals or living space are not shared. The household is the basic unit of analysis in many social, microeconomic and government models, and is important to the fields of economics, inheritance. Household models include the family, varieties of blended families, share housing, group homes, boarding houses, houses in multiple occupation (UK), and a single room occupancy (US). In feudal times, the royal Household and medieval households of the wealthy would also have included servants and other retainers. Contents 1 Government, 2 Economic theories, 3 Social, 4 Household models, 5 Historical households, 6 Historical statistics on housing, 7 See also, 8 External links, 9 References, Government: For statistical purposes in the United Kingdom, a household is defined as "one person or a group of people who have the accommodation as their only or main residence and for a group, either share at least one meal a day or share the living accommodation, that is, a living room or sitting room". The United States Census definition similarly turns on "separate living quarters", i.e. "those in which the occupants live and eat separately from any other persons in the building" A householder in the U.S. census is the "person (or one of the people) in whose name the housing unit is owned or rented (maintained);" if no person qualifies, any adult resident of a housing unit is a householder. The U.S. government formerly used the terms "head of the household" and "head of the family" to describe householders; beginning in 1980, these terms were officially dropped from the census and replaced with "householder". A household is officially defined as follows: A household includes all the persons who occupy a housing unit. A housing unit is a house, an apartment, a mobile home, a group of rooms, or a single room that is occupied (or if vacant, is intended for occupancy) as separate living quarters. Separate living quarters are those in which the occupants live and eat separately from any other persons in the building and which have direct access from the outside of the building or through a common hall. The occupants may be a single family, one person living alone, two or more families living together, or any other group of related or unrelated persons who share living arrangements. (People not living in households are classified as living in group quarters.) According to Statistics Canada, since July 15, 1998, "a household is generally defined as being composed of a person or group of persons who co-reside in, or occupy, a dwelling." Economic theories: Most economic theories assume there is only one income stream to a household; this a useful simplification for modeling, but does not necessarily reflect reality. Many households now include multiple income-earning members. Most economic models do not address whether the members of a household are a family in the traditional sense. Government and policy discussions often treat the terms household and family as synonymous, especially in western societies where the nuclear family has become the most common family structure. In reality, there is not always a one-to-one relationship between households and families. Social: In social work the household is a residential grouping defined similarly to the above in which housework is divided and performed by householders. Care may be delivered by one householder to another, depending upon their respective needs, abilities, and perhaps disabilities. Different household compositions may lead to differential life and health expectations and outcomes for household members. Eligibility for certain community services and welfare benefits may depend upon household composition. In sociology 'household work strategy', a term coined by Ray Pahl, is the division of labour between members of a household, whether implicit or the result of explicit decision-making, with the alternatives weighed up in a simplified type of cost-benefit analysis. It is a plan for the relative deployment of household members' time between the three domains of employment: i) in the market economy, including home-based self-employment second jobs, in order to obtain money to buy goods and services in the market; ii) domestic production work, such as cultivating a vegetable patch or raising chickens, purely to supply food to the household; and iii) domestic consumption work to provide goods and services directly within the household, such as cooking meals, child-care, household repairs, or the manufacture of clothes and gifts. Household work strategies may vary over the life-cycle, as household members age, or with the economic environment; they may be imposed by one person or be decided collectively. Feminism examines the ways that gender roles affect the division of labour within households. Sociologist Arlie Russell Hochschild in The Second Shift and The Time Bind presents evidence that in two-career couples, men and women, on average, spend about equal amounts of time working, but women still spend more time on housework. Feminist writer Cathy Young responds to Hochschild's assertions by arguing that in some cases, women may prevent the equal participation of men in housework and parenting. Household models: Household models in anglophone culture include the family and varieties of blended families, share housing, and group homes for people with support needs. Other models of living situations which may meet definitions of a household include boarding houses, a house in multiple occupation (UK), and a single room occupancy (US). Historical households: In feudal or aristocratic societies, a household may include servants or retainers, whether or not they are explicitly so named. Their roles may blur the line between a family member and an employee. In such cases, they ultimately derive their income from the household's principal income. Historical statistics on housing: Percentage of dwellings with a bathroom in various European countries 1960: Belgium: 23.6% Denmark: 39.4% Germany: 51.9% Greece: 10.4% Spain: 24.0% France: 28.0% Ireland: 33.0% Italy: 10.7% Luxembourg: 45.7% Netherlands: 30.3% Portugal: 18.6% United Kingdom: 78.3% 1970: Belgium: 49.1% Denmark: 73.1% Germany: 71.5% Spain: 77.8% France: 48.9% Ireland: 55.3% Italy: 64.5% Luxembourg: 69.4% Netherlands: 75.5% United Kingdom: 90.9% 1980: Belgium: 73.9% Denmark: 85.4% Germany: 92.3% Greece: 69.3% Spain: 85.3% France: 85.2% Ireland: 82.0% Italy: 86.4% Luxembourg: 86.2% Netherlands: 95.9% Portugal: 58% United Kingdom: 98.0% According to statistics from Eurostat, the percentage of households in various European countries with access to an indoor WC, bath/ shower, and hot running water on the premises in 1988 were as follows: Country Indoor WC Bath/shower Hot running water Belgium 94% 92% 87% Denmark 97% 94% N/A France 94% 93% 95% Germany 99% 97% 98% Greece 85% 85% 84% Ireland 94% 92% 91% Italy 99% 95% 93% Luxembourg 99% 97% 97% Netherlands N/A 99% 100% Portugal 80% N/A N/A Spain 97% 96% N/A UK 99% 100% N/A Percentage of dwellings in various European countries with certain amenities, according to 1981-82 censuses Bathroom or shower on the premises: Belgium: 73.9% Denmark: 85.1% Germany: 92.3% Greece: 69.3% Spain: 85.3% France: 85.2% Ireland: 82.0% Italy: 86.4% Luxembourg: 86.2% Netherlands: 95.9% Portugal: 58.0% United Kingdom: 98.0% Internal WC: Belgium: 79.0% Denmark: 95.8% Germany: 96.0% Greece: 70.9% France: 85.4% Ireland: 84.5% Italy: 87.7% Luxembourg: 97.3% Portugal: 58.7% United Kingdom: 97.3% Central heating on the premises: Denmark: 54.6% Germany: 70.0% Spain: 22.5% France: 67.6% Ireland: 39.2% Italy: 56.5% Luxembourg: 73.9% Netherlands: 66.1% According to statistics from the World Bank and the Economic Commission for Europe (UN), the average usable floorspace of dwellings in existence in 1976 in various countries were as follows: Country m Austria 86 Belgium 97 Bulgaria 63 Canada 89 Czechoslovakia 69 Denmark 122 Finland 71 France 82 East Germany 60 West Germany 95 Greece 80 Hungary 65 Ireland 88 Luxembourg 107 Netherlands 71 Norway 89 Poland 58 Portugal 104 Romania 54 Soviet Union 49 Spain 82 Sweden 109 Switzerland 98 United Kingdom 70 United States 120 Yugoslavia 65 Average useful floor space (m) per dwelling in selected European countries (Source: European Commission, 1994): Country m Austria 85.3 Belgium 86.3 Denmark 107.0 Finland 74.8 France 85.4 East Germany 64.4 West Germany 86.7 Greece 79.6 Ireland 88.0 Italy 92.3 Luxembourg 107.0 Netherlands 98.6 Spain 86.6 Sweden 92.0 United Kingdom 79.7 Percentage of households without modern amenities (Source: Living Conditions in OECD Countries, 1986) Note: The Japanese and European data is from a 1980 census. Percentage of households lacking an indoor flush toilet: Country No indoor flush toilet Belgium 19% France 17% West Germany 7% Greece 29% Ireland 22% Italy 11% Japan 54% Norway 17% Portugal 43% Spain 12% United Kingdom 6% Percentage of households lacking a fixed shower or bath: Country No fixed shower or bath Belgium 24% France 17% West Germany 11% Italy 11% Japan 17% Norway 18% Spain 39% United Kingdom 4% Floor space in selected countries (1992-1993) Country Year m Australia 1993 191.0 United States 1992 153.2 South Korea 1993 119.3 United Kingdom 1992 95.0 Germany 1993 90.8 Japan 1993 88.6 Basic amenities in British and German housing: Households with an exclusive use of an inside WC: Britain: (1961) 87% (1971) 88% (1979) 95% Germany: (1960) 64% (1970) 85% (1978) 92.5% Households with a bath or shower: Britain: (1961) 72% (1971) 91% (1979) 94.3% Germany: (1960) 51% (1970) 82% (1978) 89.1% Percentage of principle residences in France lacking certain amenities: 1962: No running water in dwelling: 21.6% No W.C. in dwelling: 59.5% No bath or shower in dwelling: 71.1% No central heating: 80.7% 1968: No running water in dwelling: 9.2% No W.C. in dwelling: 45.2% No bath or shower in dwelling: 52.5% No central heating: 65.1% 1975: No running water in dwelling: 2.8% No W.C. in dwelling: 26.2% No bath or shower in dwelling: 29.8% No central heating: 46.9% 1978: No running water in dwelling: 1.3% No W.C. in dwelling: 20.9% No bath or shower in dwelling: 22.9% No central heating: 39.7% Percentage of households with central heating: Country 1970 1978 Great Britain 34% 53% Germany 44% 64% Percentage of dwellings in the United States with selected amenities (1970): Household Percentage Bath or shower 95% Flush toilet 96% Basic amenities in the housing stock of East Germany: 1961 Running water: 66.0% Interior WC: 33.0% Bath or shower: 22.4% Central heating: 2.5% 1971: Running water: 82.2% Interior WC: 41.8% Bath or shower: 38.7% Central heating: 10.6% 1979: Running water: 89.0% Interior WC: 50.0% Bath or shower: 50.0% Central heating: 22.0%More
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