For other uses, see Minden (disambiguation). This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (August 2009) Minden O... For other uses, see Minden (disambiguation). This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (August 2009) Minden Old City Hall of Minden , Coat of arms Minden Location of Minden within Minden-Lübbecke district Coordinates: 52°17′N 8°55′E / 52.283°N 8.917°E / 52.283; 8.917Coordinates: 52°17′N 8°55′E / 52.283°N 8.917°E / 52.283; 8.917 Country Germany State North Rhine-Westphalia Admin. region Detmold District Minden-Lübbecke Subdivisions 19 districts Government • Mayor Michael Buhre (SPD) Area • Total 101.08 km (39.03 sq mi) Elevation 42 m (138 ft) Population (2012-12-31) • Total 79,853 • Density 790/km (2,000/sq mi) Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Postal codes 32300-32499 Dialling codes 0571 Vehicle registration MI Website www.minden.de Minden is a town of about 83,000 inhabitants in the north-east of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. The town extends along both sides of the River Weser. It is the capital of the district (Kreis) of Minden-Lübbecke, which is part of the region of Detmold. Minden is the historic political centre of the cultural region of Minden Land. It is widely known as the intersection of the Mittelland Canal and the River Weser. The town is over 1,200 years old and has many buildings in the Weser Renaissance style, in addition to its architecturally symbolic 1,000 year old cathedral. Contents 1 Geography 1.1 Location, 1.2 Neighbouring settlements, 1.3 Town subdivisions, , 2 History 2.1 Early history to Middle Ages, 2.2 Middle Ages to Modern Era, 2.3 19th century, 2.4 20th century, 2.5 World War II to the local government reorganisation, 2.6 Local government reform to present day, 2.7 Religions 2.7.1 Protestant, 2.7.2 Roman Catholic, 2.7.3 Jews, , , 3 Culture and sights 3.1 Theatre and cabaret revues, 3.2 Museums, 3.3 Buildings, 3.4 Monuments, 3.5 Parks, 3.6 Sport, , 4 Economy and Infrastructure 4.1 Transportation 4.1.1 Rail and Bus, 4.1.2 Roads, 4.1.3 Waterways and Harbours, 4.1.4 Weser Bridges, 4.1.5 Bicycle, , 4.2 Economy 4.2.1 Local Enterprises, , 4.3 Media, 4.4 Public Services and Establishments, 4.5 Education, , 5 People and Personalities 5.1 Honorary Citizens, 5.2 Daughters and Sons of the Town, 5.3 Residents of Minden, , 6 Trivia, 7 Literature, 8 Of Additional Interest, 9 Politics 9.1 Town Colours, 9.2 International relations, , 10 Gallery, 11 References, 12 External links, Geography: Location: Minden is in the northeast of the state of North Rhine-Westphalia. It lies on the River Weser, north of the Porta Westfalica gap between the ridges of the Weser Hills and Wiehen Hills. The Weser leaves the Weser Uplands and flows into the North German Plain through the town's subdistricts of Dützen and Haddenhausen. The town centre lies 5 kilometres (3 miles) to the north, on a plateau on the western side of the river. The small Bastau stream flows into the Weser from the west near the town centre. The edge of the plateau marks the transition from the Middle Weser Valley to the Lübbecke Loessland. This marked change in terrain divides the upper town from the lower town, and marks the boundary between two ecological zones. The formation of the town was strongly influenced by the Prussian fortress of Minden, whose now-demolished fortifications have been turned into a green belt around the town centre. Minden is 40 kilometres (25 miles) NE of Bielefeld, 60 km (37 miles) W of Hanover, 80 km (50 mi) S of Bremen and 60 km (37 mi) E of Osnabrück. It acted as the historic and political focus for the surrounding countryside. The Mittelland Canal traverses the town from east to west, while the Weser flows from south to north. These waterways cross in the northern area of the town at the Minden Aqueduct (Wasserstraßenkreuz Minden). The lowest part of the town is in the district of Leteln, at 40 metres (131 feet), while the highest part is in the district of Haddenhausen at 181 metres (594 feet). The altitude of the town is given officially as 42.2 metres (138.5 feet), based on the elevation of the town hall. The town covers an area of 101.08 square kilometres (39.03 sq mi). It extends 13.1 km (8.1 miles) from north to south and 14.1 km (9 mi) from east to west. Neighbouring settlements: Clockwise from north Petershagen, Bückeburg in Landkreis Schaumburg in Lower Saxony, Porta Westfalica, Bad Oeynhausen, Hille, Town subdivisions: Minden consists of 19 subdistricts: Bärenkämpen, Bölhorst, Dankersen, Dützen, Haddenhausen, Häverstädt, Hahlen, Minden (town itself), Königstor, Kutenhausen, Leteln-Aminghausen, Meißen, Minderheide, Nordstadt, Päpinghausen, Rechtes Weserufer, Rodenbeck, Stemmer, Todtenhausen, History: Early history to Middle Ages: Evidence of settlements in various parts of the town suggest that Minden has been settled since the 3rd century A.D. The Minden area shows continuing settlement activity from the 1st to the 4th century. The area then belonged to the Rhine-Weser-Germanic development sphere. This is apparent from the imperial age burial fields at Minden-Römerring and Porta Westfalica-Costedt. The first recorded mention of Minden is a record in the Franconian Imperial Annals (Reichsannalen) of Charlemagne holding an imperial assembly in 798. Charlemagne founded a bishopric in Minden around the year 800. The rights to hold a market, to mint coins and to collect customs duties were granted in 977. Until the beginning of the 13th century, the bishop appointed the leader and administrator of the town, with the title of Wichgraf. The citizens of Minden and their Council obtained independence from the rule of the bishop around the year 1230 and received a town charter. They utilised these new rights to begin trading independently from the church. The profits from this led to the further growth of the town. Minden was a member of the Hanseatic League during the Middle Ages. The increased self-confidence of the citizens of Minden was demonstrated by the construction of the town hall, probably adjoining the separately governed cathedral precinct. As a result, Bishop Gottfried von Waldeck moved his official residence from Minden to Petershagen in 1306-7. Middle Ages to Modern Era: The introduction of the Reformation to Minden in 1529 created much conflict in the town, leading to the formation of a 36-man unit that took over the role of town regiment. Nicholas Krage announced Minden's new evangelical church order from the pulpit of St. Martin's Church (Martinikirche) on 13 February 1530. There were 128 prosecutions for witchcraft between 1603 to 1684. As in nearby regions, almost all those sentenced were women. Imperial troops occupied Minden from 1625 to 1634, during the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648). Protestant Swedish troops laid siege to Minden and captured it in 1634. Queen Christina of Sweden (reigned 1632-1654) granted full sovereignty in internal and external affairs to Minden. The Peace of Westphalia in 1648 gave the possession of Minden to Brandenburg-Prussia, and it remained with Prussia until its break-up in 1947. The rule of Frederick I of Prussia (in office 1688-1713) ended the 400-year self-determination or independence of the citizens of Minden. The 40-man unit (Vierziger) was dissolved by the king and the town council was replaced by a town authority consisting of 16 businessmen, 16 tradesmen and eight representatives of the community who were elected for life. The Battle of Minden took place in front of the gates of Minden on 1 August 1759 during the Seven Years' War. The allies of Great Britain, led by Duke Ferdinand of Brunswick, defeated the French and their allies in a decisive battle. The region remained Prussian and the adjacent Kingdom of Hanover remained in the possession of the English king. The town was capital of the Territory of Minden-Ravensberg from 1719 to 1807 and capital of the District of Minden from 1816 to 1947. 19th century: The area around the cathedral was sovereign territory until 1806. It was governed by clerical rulers in contrast to other town quarters. French troops occupied the town on 13 November 1806. The town then became part of the Kingdom of Westphalia and, later, an actual part of France until 1810. After the defeat of Napoleon at the Battle of Leipzig, French troops abandoned Minden and it returned to Prussia. Minden Fortress was rebuilt in the time of district administrator (Landrat) von Arnim, from 1816 to 1820. This reconstruction of the fortifications had serious negative consequences because it hindered economic development, which almost totally by-passed Minden. During this time relatively smaller towns like Bielefeld and Dortmund laid the foundation for their greater subsequent growth. The Prussian era was very influential for Minden. This is apparent both in the townscape and town layout. Many buildings from this era remain. The first Fortress Commander was Ernst Michael von Schwichow. The town remained a Prussian fortress until 1873, when the Reichstag (Germany's Imperial Parliament) passed the law to remove the fortress status of Minden along with Stettin, Erfurt, Wittenber, Kosel, Graudenz, Kolberg and Stralsund. The fortress walls were razed at this time permitting the town to catch up economically. However, it was never able to regain its former political and economic importance. 20th century: The November Revolution of 1918 passed relatively quietly in Minden. Small disturbances occurred in a few barracks of the Minden Garrison on 7 and 8 November 1918. These were calmed down by representatives of the SPD party and by union representatives. A council of workers and soldiers took control in the afternoon of 18 November. The situation in Minden was more critical during the Kapp Putsch of March 1920. The representatives of the SPD, DDP and USDP parties on the Minden Town Council declared themselves loyal to President Friedrich Ebert and the Bauer government, and only the Centre Party remained non-committal. The Workers' Council directly intervened in the town's administration for the first time on 15 March 1920. The newspapers Mindener Tagesblat and Mindener Zeitung were placed under pre-censorship and then closed because they had released press releases from the putschists. Such measures were unprecedented for Minden and were not even experienced during the November Revolution of 1918. President Friedrich Ebert and Chancellor Bauer confirmed the authority of the Minden Workers' Council in a telegramme on 16 March: "The highest executive authority will be transferred to the Workers' Council of Minden. It should take and enforce all measures to secure constitutional government. Signed Ebert Reichspräsident, Signed Bauer Reichskanzler". The population and political parties became even more polarized after the failure of the putsch than before. The assassination of Foreign Minister Walther Rathenau on 24 June 1922 resulted in serious rioting in Minden. A demonstration of 15,000 people in support of the government was held in the market square on 27 June. Many demonstrators went through the town afterwards and searched apartments, businesses and taverns for signs of "reactionaries" and nationalistically-oriented Minden citizens. Many pictures and statues of the former emperor, as well as black-white-red flags and other such objects were smashed or burned. On 1 July, the Mindener Zeitung described these disturbances as "Russian conditions". World War II to the local government reorganisation: During World War II, underground factories were built in the Weser Hills and Wiehen Hills near Minden. Slave labourers from a nearby concentration camp were forced to produce weapons and other war materiel. After the war the machinery was removed by American troops and the entrances sealed. Most of the Jewish citizens of Minden were deported and dispossessed. The Stolpersteine (stumbling stones) were built on Minden's pavements as a memorial to them. Minden sustained severe damage from bombardment during World War II. These attacks were minor during the early phase of the war. The raid on 26 October 1944 on the canal aqueduct resulted in the breaching of the Mittelland Canal and the drowning of numerous workers in a nearby air raid shelter. The last and most devastating air raid was conducted by US Army Air Force B17s on 28 March 1945. This almost completely destroyed the town centre, including the town hall and cathedral, and resulted in the death of over 180 people. The advance of Allied troops toward the end of the war caused the Nazis, who were running the town, to flee across the Weser to the east. Almost all the bridges over the Weser and Mittelland Canal as well as the aqueduct over the Weser were blown up by the Wehrmacht in a futile attempt to delay the Allied advance. The town was occupied by the 1st Canadian Airborne Battalion on 1 April 1945, the units of the American 9th Army having been delayed in their attack from Bad Oeynhausen. The town administration resumed its work on 9 April 1945 on a provisional basis. The area became part of the British Occupation Zone. The creation of the state of North Rhine-Westphalia led to Minden losing its position as a regional (Bezirk) capital to Detmold. Urban renewal was carried out in the 1970s, with new structures replacing buildings that were deemed dilapidated. The removal of timbered houses as part of this renewal was later regretted. The new town hall extension blocked the scenic view of the cathedral from the arches of the old town hall. A controversial 2006 resolution by the town council proposed the demolition of the town hall extensions, a new shopping mall and restoration of the view toward the cathedral. However, in a referendum, a 57% majority opposed this plan. Local government reform to present day: On 1 January 1973, the previously separate communities of Aminghausen, Bölhorst, Dankersen, Dützen, Haddenhausen, Hahlen, Häverstädt, Kutenhausen, Leteln, Meißen, Päpinghausen, Stemmer, Todtenhausen as well as parts of Barkhausen, Hartum and Holzhausen II were incorporated into the town of Minden. At the same time the new district (Kreis) of Minden-Lübbecke was created from the former districts of Minden and Lübbecke. Minden remains the capital. This restructuring was carried out under the "Bielefeld law". A new district administration building is being constructed south of the town centre on the site of an old barracks; the old administrative building is to be used as a community archive. The shoreline of the Weser was improved in 1976 by extending the promenade from the Fischerstadt (Fishermen's Village). The Glacis, a park-like open space in front of the old fortifications, which was important as a green belt, was altered and made more accessible. The old town wall fronting the Fischerstadt was restored to its former height. The departure of British troops in 1994 allowed the integration of the old engineer troop training site on the Weser into the Glacis. This enhanced this nearby recreation area. The opposite shore area (Kanzlers Weide) has been made accessible by a footbridge. This improves access to a large parking area and festival site. The development of the town centre was being debated at the beginning of the 21st century. The town developed a master plan for the development of the town centre in 2009 which was passed by the town council in June. Religions: Protestant: The Reformation was carried out in Minden between 1521 and 1529. Nicholas Krage authored the new evangelical church rules for the town in 1530. The town council of Minden approved these new rules for all citizens in 1530. The town of Minden contains four evangelical parishes today: St. Mary's, St. Martin's, and the parishes of St. Peter's and St. Simeon's Churches. St. Mary's parish encompasses the former villages of Todtenhausen and Kutenhausen; St. Martin's parish includes the former villages Dützen, Bölhorst and Häverstädt. Roman Catholic: There are four Roman Catholic parishes in Minden: the papal parish of the cathedral, St. Peter and Gorgonius; as well as the parishes of St. Mauritius, St. Paul and St. Ansgar which are all bound together into a pastoral combination of the Mindener Land. The parishioners of the former districts (Amt) of Dützen and Hartum belong to the cathedral parish. Jews: A Jewish community has existed in Minden since the 13th century. There were up to 400 members in the 19th century. After WWII the Jewish community was reconstituted with 40 members. The Minden synagogue which was destroyed in the Kristallnacht pogrom, was inaugurated at a new site in 1958 and is the centre of the Jewish community. Culture and sights: Theatre and cabaret revues: Minden Town Theatre (Stadttheater Minden) celebrated its 100-year anniversary in 2008 and now has a fixed venue. The town supports the regular symphony concerts of the Nordwestdeutsche Philharmonie. The orchestra, conductor has been Frank Beermann, GMD of the Chemnitz Opera, has played in operas by Richard Wagner, staged at the theatre on an initiative of the Richard-Wagner-Verband Minden: Der fliegende Holländer (2002), Tannhäuser (2005), Lohengrin (2009), and Tristan und Isolde. Further theatre and cultural events occur with private sponsorship and are held in such locations as the Bürgerzentrum (civic centre) and the Theater am Weingarten. There are also theatre groups without fixed performance venues. Minden is the original site and location of the nationally known amateur cabaret, Mindener Stichlinge. Its foundation in 1896 makes it the oldest active cabaret in Germany. The town awards a prize to support literary-political cabarets. The 4,000 euro prize, awarded every two years, is named Kabarett-Förderpreis Mindener Stichling, and is sponsored by the Melitta company as well as the Sparkasse (bank) of Minden-Lübbecke. Museums: Minden has a community archive and two significant museums. The Preußenmuseum Minden is one of two Prussian museums in Westphalia. It is quartered in old barracks on Simeonsplatz (Simeon Square). The building served the old Minden Fortress which influenced the town until its demolition in 1873. The second is the Minden Museum of History, Cultural Studies and Folklore ('Mindener Museum für Geschichte, Landes- und Volkskunde). The exhibits are in a Weser Renaissance style row of patrician houses. The attached Coffee Museum (Kaffee-Museum) focuses on the 100-year-old coffee producer, Melitta. The Dolls' Museum (Puppenmuseum) is a private initiative. The Westphalian Mill Route is the first of its kind and connects the many windmills on the plains of the Minden countryside. These had already been recognized and preserved as technical monuments in the 1960s. Most of these relics of the 19th century have been restored. The Minden Museum Railway operates with old Prussian rolling stock on the old tracks of the Minden Light Railway. It is famous for harking back to traditional Prussia. An information centre is located at the Wasserstraßenkreuz Minden. This demonstrates its functioning and explains the need for a new lock to accommodate the increasing size of inland ships. Buildings: The 1,200 year old settlement has a scenic old town surrounding the Cathedral of St. Gorgonius. Many buildings stem from the economically active 16th century. Some are built in the regional Weser Renaissance style while other hark back to the time when Minden was a fortified town. The cathedral's western entrance façade is in Romanesque style while the early Gothic nave and aisles date from the 11th to the 13th Century. The early settlement was on the lower town terrace surrounding the cathedral. The rebuilt town hall from the 13th Century with its picturesque arcade is 150m to the west. The view between the two buildings is partly blocked by a town hall addition dating from the post-World War II urban renewal. The town hall's historic arcade survived the major bomb attack of WWII. The market square possesses more historic buildings with impressive façades, including the Schmiedingsche Haus. The climb to the upper terrace of the old-town is aided by the "Martinitreppe" (St. Martin's steps). The rise of the upper terrace was used architecturally to enhance the distant view of the churches located there. These include St. Martini built after 1300, St. Marien (St. Marys church) on the steep scenic "Hufschmiede" (horseshoe-smithy), and high steepled St Simionis built after 1305. The red sandstone "Proviant-Magazin" (Granary) and adjacent bakery originally supported the Prussion fortress garrison. The "Alte Münze" (old mint) is the oldest stone building in Westfalia. Across the street is the "Windloch" (wind-hole) a trapezoidal half-timbered house that is one of the smallest in Minden. It is named for the wind that church-goers encountered in the adjacent alleyway. Further on are the Weserrenaissance style row of buildings housing the historical museum of the town. The "Schwedenschänke" (Swedish tavern) is a reminder of the Swedish occupation during the 30 Year War and is now a restaurant-tavern. The town expanded within the fortress walls to the north on the lower terrace. Here is the site of "St. Johannis" (St. John's church). The "Wesertor" (old bridgehead gate) experienced considerable urban renewal and the construction of two new department stores. These are on the pedestrian shopping street called "Bäckerstraße" (bakers street). The "Fischerstadt" (fishermens town) lies along the Weser to the north of the old town core. Remnants of the old town fortification wall still exist here. All other fortification walls were demolished and replaced by the green belt of the "Glacis". The dissolution of the fortification allowed the slow development of prestigious residential houses in the areas outside the old walls. The impressive façade of "Haus Flamme/Schmieding" on the market square obtained a twice daily clock display in 2010. It features Duke Widukind, the last Saxon leader, shaking hands with Charlemagne. They give the oath: "diese Burg soll nun min und din sein" (this fort shall now be mine and thine), thus naming Minden. Minden contains significant buildings in the Weser Renaissance style, such as the Administration Building of the old Minden Region, the "Haus Hill" on the Bäckerstraße and "Haus Hagemeyer" on the "Scharn". The "Schloss Haddenhausen" is a 17th Century Weserrenaissance style manor house on the outskirts of the town. The second largest water crossing in Germany is located north of the town centre. The Mittelland Canal passes over the Weser on a double aqueduct. Two systems of locks allow passage of ships from one level to the other. A larger lock is under construction. The "Kampa-Halle" is a large complex for sports and other events. It is the home venue for "Grün-Weiß Dankersen Minden" a handball club that is a member of the national league (Handballbundesliga). Monuments: The town of Minden contains several monuments harking back to Prussian history. The monument of the Great Elector (Denkmal des Großen Kurfürsten) stands alongside the Weser bridgehead to commemorate the first Prussian ruler of Minden. The monument to the Battle of Minden is in the Todtenhausen quarter of the town. It commemorates the decisive victory of the allied forces of Great Britain, Hanover, Hesse-Kassel, Brunswick-Wolfenbuettel and Schaumburg-Lippe led by Duke Ferdinand of Brunswick over a French and Electorate of Saxony army led by the Marquis de Contades. Parks: The botanical garden is centrally located on the site of the old cemetery and features old tree specimens and thematic gardens. The site for burials was transferred in 1904 to a new site on the Weser north of the town centre. The "Glacis" stems from the Fortress Minden. The present wooded parklike green belt was started after the demolition of the fortress walls. The post Napoleonic fortifications had replaced older walls stemming from the Middle Ages. Sport: The handball club "Handballverein Grün-Weiß Dankersen Minden" is the most famous sport club in Minden. This club has played in the Handballbundesliga (national handball league) with only two interruptions since the league's founding in 1966. It has remained there since 1995. GWD now plays in the Kampa_Halle. It won the German title twice. Many of its players have been on the national team. Its previous venue the Weserstadion is now used for track and field and football (soccer). Minden's football team, Union Minden plays in the Landesliga of Westfalia. Minden has a reputation as a water sports centre aided by its location on the Weser. "MTV 1860 Minden e.V" is the largest and oldest sport organization with gymnastics, fencing, handball, canoe racing, judo, swimming, volleyball and other popular sports. Its boathouse is at the confluence of the Bastau stream into the Weser. The canoe club KSG Minden e.V. has its clubhouse upstream. It is the local organizer of dragon boat races. TV Jahn Sportclub has a canoe and kayak group below the main Weser bridge. The Bessel-Ruder-Club e.V. is a rowing club stemming from the rowing activities of the Bessel and Herder Gymnasiums (high schools). The yearly Mindener Hafen-Sprint is one of the largest student regattas in Germany. Many organizations participate in the organization of the major water sport fetival "Blaues Band der Weser" which is held every other year. Economy and Infrastructure: Transportation: Rail and Bus: Minden station is on the Hanover-Minden and the Hamm-Minden lines, which are part of the main lines connecting Cologne-Ruhr area with Berlin and Amsterdam with Berlin, as well as the secondary Weser-Aller line between Minden and Nienburg. The railway station is a stop for local and express trains such as Intercity-Express and InterCity. Regional Lines: RE 6 Westfalen-Express Düsseldorf-Essen-Hamm-Bielefeld-Minden, RE 60/70 Bielefeld/Rheine-Osnabrück-Minden-Hannover-Braunschweig (Brunswick), RE 78 Porta-Express Bielefeld-Bad Oeynhausen-Minden-Nienburg (Monday to Friday), RB 76 Weser-Aller-Bahn Minden-Verden-Rotenburg (with connection to Bremen and Hamburg, only on weekends and holidays)., Minden is the end station of line S 1 of the Hanover S-Bahn to Hanover. All passenger platforms are accessible to the handicapped. There is bicycle parking and a ticket automat. Bus connection with the railway station occurs every half-hour though the "Verkehrsbetriebe Minden-Ravensberg GmbH (VMR)" bus line. The central bus depot is called "ZOB" and is located in the town centre. The 13 bus lines rendezvous here every half hour. The local buses are coordinated with the regional buses to places such as Bad Oeynhausen, Lübbecke, Espelkamp and Petershagen. Some of these bus lines operate only on an hourly basis and only until 8 PM. The "Museumseisenbahn Minden (MEM)" operates restored locomotives and rolling stock on the rail lines of the Mindener Kreisbahnen, a small regional railroad. These run from its upper town railway yard to Hille in the west and the visitors' mine in Kleinenbremen to the east. Several rail line sections of the former narrow gauge track (now converted to normal gauge) serve the freight trains of the Mindener Kreisbahnen. Roads: The town is close to the Autobahn A 2 from Berlin to the Ruhr and the A 30 to Amsterdam. The federal roads 61 and 65 cross in the town. The divided highway south of the town travels through a tunnel to Porta Wesfalica and on to Bad Oeynhausen. The Federal road 482 runs east of the town and connects the A 2 to the south, and goes toward Nienburg to the north. Two semicircle ring roads go around the town itself, the inner route 61 provides a town by-pass. This inner ring is almost completely four-lane. The town centre has pay car parks and an automated guide to empty spaces. Waterways and Harbours: Minden is an important junction for inland waterways. It is the crossing of the navigable Weser and the Mittellandkanal (middle land canal). A lock connects the River with the canal to overcome a difference in height of 13 m. It will be replaced by a larger new lock that is presently under construction. The harbours on both Weser and Mittellankanal are experiencing increasing volume. The traffic volume for containers in the industrial harbour should be noted. This has developed because of the good waterway connections to the seaports of Bremen and Hamburg. A new container port is being planned to the east of the present Mittellandkanal harbour. Weser Bridges: There are seven overpasses over the Weser in Minden, three road bridges, a railroad bridge, one pedestrian bridge and a double aqueduct for the canal. The first permanent bridge over the Weser was built in the 13th Century. The present bridge at the same site connects the town centre with the eastern suburbs and the railway station. This four lane bridge carries Federal Road 65, the highway between Osnabrück and Hanover. Two traffic relief bridges were built in the 70s. The "Gustav-Heineman" bridge to the north and the "Theodor-Heuss" bridge to the south are four lane and are intended to lead traffic away from town centre. Plans for the southern bridge to accommodate the A 30 Autobahan were not realized. The railway bridge was the second one built and carries the Minener Kreisbahnen tracks over the Weser toward the main rail yard. The development of the Mittellandkanal required a crossing of the Weser. This occurred north of the old town. This water crossing was the largest in Germany until the construction of the one in Magdeburg over the Elbe. The aqueduct was supplemented by a second span in 1998 to accommodate the new class of larger motor barges. The latest bridge, the Glacisbrücke, is a pedestrian suspension bridge that provides access to "Kanzlers Weide" large parking area from the town centre. There are further nearby road bridges, 10 km (6 mi) south at Porta wesfalica and 20 km (12 mi) north at Petershagen. The traffic over the main town bridge is limited because a continuation bridge over the flood pain has been determined to have structural problems. It is limited to medium loads on one lane in each direction. A completely new replacement is in progress of being built. Bicycle: The town is on the bicycle routes "Mühlenroute" (mill route) and "Weserradweg" (water bicycle path). It is the departure point for the "Wellness-Radroute" There is a bike station at the railroad station complete with servicing. The town belongs to working cooperative "Fahrradfreundliche Stadte und Gemeinden in NRW" (bicycle friendly communities in North Rhine-Westfalia). The goal is to increase bicycle traffic to over 20 percent of the total. "Fahrradförderung Minden", is a volunteer group that develops recommendations to government. It is involved in working on an overall bicycle traffic concept, whose implementation is delayed by budget problems. Economy: The economic development of Minden was retarded by the strangling of the fortress walls, beyond which no development could take place in order to preserve fields of fire. Minden could finally develop beyond the old boundaries once its status as a fortress was abolished in 1873. Minden is now considered a business, trade and service industry hub. It is part of the business area that extends along the A 2 Autobahn from Minden through Herford, Bielefeld, Gütersloh and on to the Ruhr area. There is a multitude of manufacturing besides the agriculture of the outlying town areas. This includes the chemical, metalworking, electronic, paper, ceramic and woodworking spheres. The town administration counts 4,700 businesses within the town limits. The economic development of Minden was influenced by two factors. First is its location on a river. It had the historical right to store goods and could force passing ships to unload their cargo. Secondly was its success in grain trading since the Middle Ages. Minden was a founding member of the Hanse. Agriculture continues to occupy 50% of the total area of Minden. That is slightly more than the average for North Rhein-Westfalia, but considerably more than in the denser parts of NRW. A large new port is planned for the area of the Weser-Mittelandkanal crossing, the so-called "RegioPort Weser". Local Enterprises: Minden contains many middle-sized companies, the best known by consumers is Melitta for its coffee products. It has been located in Minden since 1929 and controls the Melitta-Group from here. The town centre contains many business firms, a few of which can be mentioned here. Chemische Werke Minden (later known as Knoll AG) was founded 1932, produces chemicals near the Mittellandkanal and is now part of BASF Pharmachemikalien (pharmacy chemicals). The Drabert firm has produced metal office furniture since 1898, and has grown to a larger holding company. Harting Technologiegruppe is an electronics company with headquarters on the Portastraße (road to Porta Westfalica) but whose main location is the nearby town of Espelkamp. WAGO Kontakttechnik has its main location in the north of the town centre and produces connector products for the electric and electronic industry. Schoppe und Faeser is a producer of electronics that has been taken over by the ABB Group. Endler and Kumpf is involved with automation technology. Löffler is a producer of fruit juices now located in an industrial park on the south side of town. The German retail food company Edeka has a regional office (Edeka Minden-Hanover) situated in Minden. The office is responsible for a large area from the North Sea to the Eastern German border. Feldschlösschen Brauerei was the local brewer of the Weser Pils beer brand, but ceased operation in the early 1980s. The well known Strothmann brand of rye distilled liquor is produced here by the Wilhelm Strothmann Brennereien that is now part of the Lucas Bols group. The Deutsche Bahn (German National Railway) relocated its headquarters from Dresden to Minden after WWII. This has turned into the DB Systemtechnik (system technology) and DB Fahrzeuginstandhaltung (vehicle maintenance) GmbH. Kampa Haus was a producer of prefabricted houses that went into bankruptcy in 2009. Ornamin Kunststoffwerke is a designer and producer of innovative plastic utensils. Although it was founded in 1955 it had its origins with the 1883 founded Brücker und Zschetzsche, a producer of fuses for explosives. The over 100 year old Altendorf GmbH firm produces machine tools including the word leading circular trim saws. Media: The Mindener Tageblatt is the local daily newspaper. The local public radio station is WDR (West German Radio) which has its studio for the East Westfalia-Lippe area in Bielefeld. It produces and transmits both radio and television programs from there. The TV transmission became digital in 2006 and has its regional antenna on the Jakobsberg near Minden. Non-public radio station Radio Westfalica is part of the Radio-NRW-Gruppe (group) and transmits a local program from Minden focused on the Kreis Minden-Lübbecke. Public Services and Establishments: The administration offices of the Kreis Minden-Lübbecke are in Minden. It is also the location of units of the Bundeswehr (German Armed Forces). The Johannes-Wesling-Klinikum is the new 864 bed teaching hospital located in Minden; one of the "Mühlenkreiskliniken" four geneneral hospitals serving the Kreis Minden-Lübbecke. The new hospital building was completed in 2008 and is in the southern town-quarter of Minden-Häverstädt. It replaces the former town hospital and the former Kreis hospital that had a total of 10730 beds. The Landeszentralbank (central state bank) of North Rhein-Westfalia has had a branch in Minden since 2005. The administrative offices of the former Minden Region were relocated to Detmold for political reasons after WWII. But Minden has one of the seven administrative courts for NRW, the district court and the labour court. The Deutsche Bahn (German National Railway) moved its headquarters from Dresden to Minden after WWII. This has turned into the DB Systemtechnik (system technology) offices. Minden is the location of the administration of the fire brigade for the district of Minden-Lübbecke. It is one of the few towns located in a district and not free standing that maintains a professional fire brigade. Education: Minden is a site of the Fachhochschule Bielefeld (University of Applied Sciences Bielefeld) specializing in teaching, architecture, construction engineering, technology, engineering and mathematics, social studies, business and health. The Fernuniversität Hagen (Distance Learning University Hagen) has a study centre in the "Lehramt für die Primarstufe" (primary grade teaching profession). Minden offers a Volkshochschule (public high school). The town supports three high or grammar schools, the Herdergymnasium, Besselgymnasium and Ratsgymnasium; two secondary schools, the Freiherr-von-Vincke-Realschule and Käthe-Kollwitz-Realschule; three main schools, the Hauptschule Minden-Süd, Hauptschule Todtenhausen and Hauptschule Dankersen as well as a comprehensive school, the Kurt-Tucholsky-Gesamtschule. Beyond this there are various elementary schools, special schools and occupational training schools. The Weser-Kolleg provides the opportunity to complete education by the so-called alternative route up to the abitur (university entrance exam). The Freie-Evangelische Schule (elementary and comprehensive) and Waldorfschule are private schools. The new school development plan takes into account the reduction in the number of children and will change the school landscape in the near future. For example in the primary school area the Hafenschule (harbour school) with its two classes for each year, and the Meißen school with a single class for each year will now send children to the Cornelia-Funke-Schule in Minden-Dankersen which will have three classes for each year. A student representative organization the BezirksSchülerInnenVertretung became active in the Minden-Lübbecke area on March 3, 2009. There is also a school for music in Minden. People and Personalities: Honorary Citizens: Baron Ludwig von Vincke, who was born in Minden, was awarded honorary citizenship on December 23, 1841. He was worked toward the unification of Westfalia as well as Prussian administrative reforms. Other honorary citizens are the Presidents of the Minden District Karl Gottlieb Richter (1777-1847) und Franz von Borries (1785-1858). In recent times the longserving mayor (1977-1991) Heinz Röthemeier was named to honorary citizenship. Daughters and Sons of the Town: Well known people born in Minden include the physician Johannes Wesling (1598-1649) namesake for the new town hospital, as well as the publisher Franz Cornelsen founder of the Cornelsen publishing house. Franz Boas, frequently referred to as "The Father of American Anthropology", was born in Minden on July 9, 1858. A small street in Minden, Franz-Boas Strasse, has been named in his memory. In recent times noted people include the politicians Edelgard Bulmahn and Sabine Leutheusser-Schnarrenberger, the TV moderator and author Peter Hahne, the long serving leader of Adolf-Grimme-Institut Lutz Hachmeister and the rapper Curse. Mathematician and astronomer Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel was born in Minden on the 22nd of July 1784. Luftwaffe General Heinrich Trettner (19 September 1907 - 18 September 2006) Knights Cross & Oak Leaves, awarded for extreme battle field bravery, the last living General of the Third Reich Residents of Minden: People not born in Minden but who had a strong association to the town through their work include Nikolas Krage, the evangelical reformer of Minden; Friedrich Hoffman who practiced in Minden as garrison physician; and Friedrich Hoffman who developed the Hooffman drops a patent medicine. The entrepreneur Carl Miele served as a soldier in Minden, the architect and high school teacher Paul Kanold was building councilor, Rainer Böhm was the inventor of the electronic Dr. Böhm-Organ, and Anika Zierke played handball. Trivia: The text of the "Star Spangled Banner", the USA national hymn was composed by Francis Scott Key while he was a prisoner on board of the HMS Minden during the attack on Baltimore. The first draft was titled the "Defense of Ft. McHenry" before its expanded text became the Star Spangled Banner. The HMS Minden was named after the town of Minden and in honor of the Battle of Minden that the British, Hanoverian, Kurhessen, Brunswick and Schaumburg-Lippe troops won over the French On August 1, 1759. The ship was transferred eventually to Hong Kong where it served as a hospital ship. In its honor two Hong Kong streets were named Minden Row and Minden avenue., The campus of the Universiti Sains Malaysia, a leading Malaysian university, was built on the territory of the former British Minden Barracks, which themselves where named after the Battle of Minden., In Hungarian the translation of the word Minden means "everything"., Literature: This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (July 2010) Of Additional Interest: Minden is the birthplace of German-American anthropologist Franz Boas (1858-1942). Politics: Town Colours: The town colours of Minden are white and red. International relations: See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany Minden is twinned with:= Gladsaxe (Denmark) - since 1968, London Borough of Sutton (United Kingdom) - since 1968, Charlottenburg-Wilmersdorf (Berlin, Germany) - since 1968, Gagny (France) - since 1976, Tangermünde (Saxony-Anhalt, Germany) - since 1990, Hrodna (Belarus) - since 1991, Koszalin in Poland, Minden, Nevada (United States), Gallery: House in Minden, Germany , Street near Marienplatz , Minden Dom (cathedral) , Mittellandkanal / River Weser Lock in Minden, taken in 1977 , View north of the River Weser from the road bridge at Minden , Southern view of the River Weser from the road bridge at Minden in 1977 , Market square , Detail of the altarpiece (1425) of the Minden cathedral: angels play a harpsichord and a psaltery. It is the earliest known image of a harpsichord.More
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